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Leadership Ludwig Boltzmann Symposia

Kiyoko Kato: Current state of female doctors in Japanese Obstetrics and Gynecology

The current state of female doctors in Japanese Obstetrics and Gynecology

「日本の産科婦人科における女性医師の現状」

Kiyoko Kato, Professor, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University

加藤聖子、教授。九州大学大学院医学研究院。生殖病態生理学

The Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership was held on Monday 16 May 2016 in Tokyo in honor of Dame Carol Black’s visit to Japan.

View the full workshop program here.

(Summary of Professor Kiyoko Kato’s keynote written by Gerhard Fasol)

Kiyoko Kato, Professor
Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Graduate School of Medical Sciences
Kyushu University

Japanese Obstetrics and Gynecology: improving medical care requires gender equality – higher numbers and higher retention of women medical doctors

  • 18% of medical doctors in Japan in 2008 are female, 82% are male. Back in 1976 only about 10% of medical doctors were female
  • Medical school: in 1976 about 13% of medical students were women, this ratio increased up to about 35% peaking around the year 2000, and subsequently decreases slowly to around 32% in 2008.

Thus the ratio of women medical doctors are slowly increasing in Japan.

The M-curve

About 90% medical doctors enter employment after graduation, remain employed at that level until about 35 years after graduation, when employment ratios slowly decrease due to retirement.

For women medical doctors, the employment ratio curve is M-shaped, with a minimum at about 76% employment approximately 11 years after graduation, at an age around 36 years, after this minimum many women medical doctors enter employment again, reaching similar employment ratio’s as men about 35 years after graduation.

62% of women medical doctors leaving their employment do this because of pregnancy, child birth or child care (80% in case of women younger than 45 years age).

Obstetrics and gynecology medical doctors older than 40 years are predominantly men, while doctors younger than 40 years are predominantly women

For medical doctors aged 40 years and over, obstetrics and gynecology specialists are predominantly men: women obstetricians and gynecology make up less than 10% of doctors at higher ages.

This ratio is reversed for obstetricians and gynecologists younger than 40 years of age: women outnumber male doctors, below 30 years age, women doctors outnumber men nearly by a factor of 2.

There is a clear trend: older medical doctors in the obstetrics and gynecology field are predominantly male, while below the age of 40 years, women dominate by an increasing ratio.

Kyushu University Hospital: Professor Kiyoko Kato is the one and only woman Full Professor of Medicine

Kyushu University has 135 female doctors, and 81.5% are on part-time contracts, only 18.5% have full time employment.

Ratio of women at different levels of the career pyramid:

  • Part-time intern doctors: 36.3% are women
  • Part-time doctors: 30.1% are women
  • Full-time doctors: 8.6% are women
  • Assistant Professors: 22 women vs 187 men (11.8% are women)
  • Lecturers: 1 single woman vs 48 men (2%)
  • Associate Professors: 1 single woman vs 31 men (3%)
  • Full Professors: 1 single woman vs 24 men = Professor Kiyoko Kato (4%)

Only one single woman has achieved promotion into each of the higher ranks of Lecturer, Associate Professor and Full Professor, indicating that any women at all in these higher academic medical Professor ranks are rare exceptions rather than the rule (no mention here of still higher ranks, such as Hospital Directors, Deans, Heads of Department, or University President).

Professor Kiyoko Kato then explained her own career, where she spent time studying in the USA, gave birth to her first child in the USA, and then to her second child after returning to Japan. She had to cope with several challenges, e.g where one of the hospitals she worked was shut down. Finally Professor Kiyoko Kato was appointed Full Professor at Kyushu University Medical School.

Professor Kiyoko Kato proposes that three issues need to be solved:

  • improve the work environment during pregnancy and child bearing
  • re-integration assistance: re-education and support after leave of absence
  • remove obstacles to career improvements

Improve the work environment during pregnancy and child bearing: the “Kyushu University Perinatal period cradle net project” 「周産期ゆりかごネットプロジェクト」

With support from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Kyushu University created the “Kyushu University Perinatal period cradle net project” (2013 – 2017). In Japanese 「周産期ゆりかごネットプロジェクト」, the website is here:
http://www.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp/yurikago/
and an overview of the project can be found here:
http://www.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp/yurikago/data.html

As the websites show, the “Kyushu University Perinatal period cradle net project” is carefully designed, structured and provides a depth of support for women medical doctors to give birth and pursue their career. Women doctors are given part-time positions in the out patient department after returning from leaves of absence.

So far seven women doctors have taken advantage of this program, and several have been assisted to return to full or part-time employment, two are still absent because of a second pregnancy. Part-time work in the outpatient department assisted them to return back to full time employment. Experiencing the hospital as a patient during birth also provided valuable experience.

Re-integration assistance: re-education and support after leave of absence. The Kyushu University Kirameki Project.

To support re-integration after absence, Kyushu University created the “Kirameki Project” (Kirameki = glitter, shine). The Kirameki Projekt is described on the website here:
https://www.kyudai-kirameki.com/

2007-2009 the Kirameki Project helped female medical workers, female doctors, dentists and nurses to re-integrate after leave of absence.

From 2010 the program (“Kyushu University Hospital Kirameki Project”) was expanded to support continuation of the career for doctors, dental doctors, nurses for both men and women, because of delivery, child care, or disease / medical leave.

The aims of the project are to promote women doctors, dentists, and nurses who would have to resign their positions due to family reasons including marriage, children, husband’s job transfer etc, and to help them pursue their career after marriage.

Activities of the Kirameki Project are:

  • survey the problems of women doctors, dentists and nurses after marriage
  • recruit qualified but “hibernating” female medical personnel
  • learning programs
  • promote “high spirits”, encourage
  • on the job training in the out-patient department

Structured programs of the Kirameki Project:

  • Administrative: refresher program
  • Reestablishment: getting back to work program
  • Suspension/leave: web based education
  • Medical specialist: continuing specialist medical education
  • Marriage, child-care: continuing education
  • Residents, newcomer nurses: basic training
  • Students: gender equality education

Remove obstacles to career improvements

Assist women researchers after child birth and during child rearing: support attending international conferences, support system for hiring research assistants and technicians for research support.

Construct a support system:

  • Return support after child-care leave: day nursery, team medical care including emergency mutual help system, flexible working time, e.g. 9-5 work day
  • Improvement of career: system of supporting female researchers during child bearing and child rearing, grants for female researchers to support technicians

Professor Kiyoko Kato’s wishes and expectations for female doctors

  • responsibility and awareness
  • gratitude to all who helped
  • contribution to medical progress
Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership
Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership
Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership
Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership
Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership
Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership
Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership
Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership
Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership
Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership

Notes

Summary of Professor Kiyoko Kato’s keynote written by Gerhard Fasol, view the full workshop program and summaries of all other keynotes here.

Copyright 2016 Eurotechnology Japan KK All Rights Reserved

Categories
Leadership Ludwig Boltzmann Symposia

Dame Carol Black: Advancing women in healthcare

Advancing women in healthcare

Dame Carol Black DBE FRCP FMedSci, Principal of Newnham College, Cambridge University, and Expert Adviser on Health and Work, Department of Health and Public Health England

The Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership was held on Monday 16 May 2016 in Tokyo in honor of Dame Carol Black’s visit to Japan.

View the full workshop program here.

(Summary of Dame Carol Black’s keynote written by Gerhard Fasol)

Dame Carol Black DBE FRCP FMedSci
Principal of Newnham College, Cambridge University.
Dame Carol Black has held top positions in medicine and now holds high-level policy advisory positions on health and work in the United Kingdom.

Women in healthcare – Women in the British National Health Service

The gender imbalance in the National Health Service is reflected by the facts that 77% of the total workforce is female, while only 7% of female staff are doctors or dentists, ie only 5.4% of total workforce are female doctors or dentists.

41% of Chief Executives are women.

81% of non-medical staff are women.

Alison Wolf and the XX Factor

Alison Margaret Wolf, Baroness Wolf of Dulwich CBE, is a British economist, and the Sir Roy Griffiths Professor of Public Sector Management at King’s College London, see:

In her book “The XX Factor: How Working Women Are Creating A New Society” (Profile Books 2013), Alison Wolf writes that women are split into two groups: one group sacrificing family for rapid professional advancements, while the other group of women opts for having children at a young age, and remain in low level positions. As a result, inequality is growing faster among women than among men, and low status and low paid jobs are predominantly done by women:

  • 97% of secretaries are female
  • 92% of registered nurses are female
  • 89% of nursing, psychiatric and home health aides are female
  • 90% of maids and housekeeping cleaners are female

The fundamentals: what are the essential characteristics of “good employment”?

  • Good work: is stable and safe, allows individual control, is flexible, gives opportunities, promotes wellbeing, reintegrates sick or disabled people if possible.
  • Good workplaces: have visible senior leadership and well trained managers, enable staff engagement, empower employees to care for their own health

Good news for medicine, less good news for academic medicine

Generally we have achieved a good situation regarding gender equality in medicine. We have achieved meritocracy, and their are no reports providing evidence for systematic barriers against women’s professional advancement. Both intake and retention for women in medicine is high, and the pay scales are the same.

A study (Royal College of Physicians (RCP) Working Party 2009), investigated the female share of Consultants (= established Senior Medical Professionals in the UK), and showed the ratio of women is highest (38% – 49%) in “more plan-able” and “more people oriented” specializations such as general practice or paediatrics, while women’s share is lowest (8% – 23%) in “more technology oriented” and “more unpredictable” specializations such as anaesthetics or surgical specializations.

There is far less progress in academic medicine, and cultural stereotypes and bias remain, see:

Women’s advance into top leadership positions suffers from “cultural” prejudices, e.g. prejudices that women too kind, too caring, not logical or strong enough, or otherwise unsuited to lead.

Prominent leadership roles for women, Prominent medical leadership

Prominent leadership roles need investment in the “extras”, leads leadership dimension in each speciality, and requires career single-mindedness.

Prominent medical leadership requires investment of time “over and above” the ordinary duties, requires professional “stewardship contributions”.

The top 200 leadership positions will naturally go to those who pursue their career goals with a high degree of single-mindedness.

Women choosing the route towards prominent leadership roles need encouragement and support, they need:

  • role models
  • mentors, and
  • sponsors

Role models: Prominent women leaders in UK medicine

  • Una O’Brien, Permanent Secretary, Department of Health
  • Professor Dame Sally Davies, Chief Medical Officer
  • Dame Julie Moore, CEO, University Hospitals Birmingham, NHS FT
  • Claire Murdoch, CEO, Central and NW London NHS Foundation Trust
  • Professor Jane Dacre, PRC Physicans
  • Clare Marx CBE, PRC Surgeons
  • Dr Suzy Lishman, PRC Pathologists
  • Dr Maureen Baker, Chair, RC General Practitioners

Need to debunk leadership myths

Its important not to fall into the traps of common leadership myths, e.g. that leadership is inborn, that leadership is that of a lone genius, that they must inspire others to follow their vision, the leadership requires formal authority, or that all leaders have common personality features.

We need to avoid similar leadership myths in medicine, e.g. that men naturally make better leaders.

Dame Carol Black: From a shoe-making village in decline to Government Advisor

Dame Carol Black is born in the shoe-making village of Barwell, Leicestershire, went to Grammar School in Market Bosworth, were she became Head Girl, despite her working class background.

Dame Carol Black studied first History, then Medical Social Work and finally Medicine at the University of Bristol, specialized in Rheumatology research, focusing on Scleroderma. Later advanced to Medical Director, Royal Free Hospital, President of the Royal College of Physicians, Chairman of the Academy of Medical Royal Colleges, Chair of the Nuffield Trust on Health Policy, then advising Government as National Director for Health and Work, and now Principal of Newnham College, Cambridge.

A major step was Dame Carol Black’s advancement to Medical Director of the Royal Free Hospital, since this meant not just responsibility for an institution or a group or a department, but also responsibility for the health of a population.

Leading the Royal College of Physicians

The Royal College of Physicians was founded by Royal Charter by Henry VIII on 23 September 1518 with the aim to promote the highest standards in medicine.

The skills required were: understanding a wide landscape, consensual leadership, standing ground when necessary, negotiating with Whitehall (= British Government) and building trust.

Chairing all the Medical Royal Colleges – The Academy, 2006-2009

Dame Carol Black from 2006-2009 chaired this group of 21 independent organizations. As Chair, Dame Carol Black had no executive powers, needed to lead by persuasion and with consensus.

Advising Government

Dame Carol Black shared several of her experiences advising Government and highest ranking Government officials and Ministers.

Key was to become valuable in the eyes of Government officials by giving independent advice based on scientific evidence, in combination with remaining totally unpolitical.

Dame Carol Black became a champion for the “cause” of health and work, and kept totally out of politics, never revealing any political views or opinion, and wrote three major reports.

The Confidence Code – forget perfection…Striving for perfection can waste women’s time, and hold back the best from reaching the top

Perfectionism and lack of confidence is large a female issue, see Katty Kay and Claire Shipman: The Confidence Code – the science and art of self-assurance, and what women should know.

Women tend to be held back by striving for perfection, while men tend to take more risks. Striving for perfection can waste women’s time, and hold back the best from reaching the top.

Women in healthcare, Women and careers, women in scientific careers

The issue of Women in Scientific Careers was examined in the “Science and Technology Committee – Sixth Report – Women in scientific careers” by the British House of Commons Science and Technology Committee in February 2014, which can be downloaded here as a pdf file:
http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201314/cmselect/cmsctech/701/701.pdf

This UK House of Commons report finds some common traits which hold women back from reaching top leadership positions, including that women may perceive promotions as undesirable, wait until they meet all perceived criteria for promotion while men often take higher risks and may behave more speculatively, and women may think that “political” skills are required to reach the top.

Finally, to reach top leadership positions, we need:

  • self confidence
  • aspiration
  • risk taking
  • resilience
  • speaking out
  • staying motivated after failure
  • mentors, sponsors, role models
  • networks
  • personal values aligned to organisational values
Dame Carol Black DBE FRCP FMedSci: Advancing women in healthcare
Dame Carol Black DBE FRCP FMedSci: Advancing women in healthcare
Dame Carol Black DBE FRCP FMedSci: Advancing women in healthcare
Dame Carol Black DBE FRCP FMedSci: Advancing women in healthcare
Dame Carol Black DBE FRCP FMedSci, Principal of Newnham College Cambridge, and  Professor Kyoko Nomura, Associate professor, Department of Hygiene and Public Health, Teikyo University, School of Medicine
Dame Carol Black DBE FRCP FMedSci, Principal of Newnham College Cambridge, and Professor Kyoko Nomura, Associate professor, Department of Hygiene and Public Health, Teikyo University, School of Medicine

Notes

Summary of Dame Carol Black’s keynote written by Gerhard Fasol, view the full workshop program and summaries of all other keynotes here.

Copyright (c) 2016 Eurotechnology Japan KK All Rights Reserved

Categories
Leadership Ludwig Boltzmann Symposia

Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership – objective

Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership – workshop objective

The Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership was held on Monday 16 May 2016 in Tokyo.

View the full workshop program here, Gerhard Fasol’s keynote lays out the objectives of the workshop in the present article.

Gerhard Fasol CEO, Eurotechnology Japan KK, Board Director, GMO Cloud KK. former faculty Cambridge University, and Trinity College, and Tokyo University

Gerhard Fasol
CEO, Eurotechnology Japan KK,
Board Director, GMO Cloud KK.
former faculty Cambridge University, and Trinity College, and Tokyo University

Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership: objectives

There are two immediate objectives for the Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s Development and Leadership:

  1. empower women leaders with global leverage
  2. lets change mind sets

I am building the Ludwig Boltzmann Forum as global leadership platform honoring my great-grandfather, and the Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s Development and Leadership is part if this initiative:

  • drive innovation based on science and technology
  • “there is no other forum for open discussions among leaders in Japan other than the Ludwig Boltzmann Forum” (said one of Japan’s top technology leaders, former Board Director of Japan’s largest Telecommunications Operator, former President of a large University, and former President of one of Japan’s most important technology organizations)

and as an additional bonus we will create new cooperations and new initiatives.

Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership – my actions so far

Several confidential preparations with Japanese Ministry officials and foreign Embassies in Japan.

One key conclusion from preparations: top priority and most difficult is to change mindsets in Japan regarding empowering women and gender issues

At the 8th Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on 18 February 2016 at the Embassy of Austria in Tokyo, honored by the participation of Her Imperial Highness, Princess Takamado, and Nobel Prize Winner Shuji Nakamura, invited Professor Kyoko Nomura to give the keynote “Gender inequality in Japan: a case report of women doctors“.

Next step is today’s (16 May 2016) “Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership”.

How to change mindsets? Expand the solution space and add new dimensions!

The basic issues, empowering women and men to combine child care and professional development, work towards greater equality and improving decision making by implementing diversity of decision makers are similar all over the world, especially in Europe and Japan.

Learning solutions from each other, expands the dimensionality of the solution space.

Expanding the solution space: learning about The Federal Ministry for Families and Youth

When we are looking for solutions to solve difficult problems, our search for solutions is limited by our experience, knowledge and imagination. Our search for solutions is in space of limited dimensionality. In many cases solutions exist outside the space we are considering.

Therefore to reach better solutions, its necessary to expand this solution space. Looking how other countries solve similar problems is one straight forward way to expand the dimensionality of the solution space, and that is where the Ludwig Boltzmann Forum aims to contribute.

As an example, many people in Japan do not know that most European countries have a Family Ministry (家族省), which represents Families at the Cabinet level. In fact, most Japanese people I have been discussing this issue with are perplexed by the possibility of a Family Ministry (家族省), and usually in response ask, what the tasks of a Family Ministry would be.

If your country does not have a Family Ministry, if you have never heard about a Family Ministry, its difficult to come up with the proposal to create a Family Ministry, and its difficult to imagine what a Family Ministry should do.

At the same time, in today’s internet age, its in theory only a click away to have a look at a Family Ministry: here is the webpage of Austria’s Family Ministry: Das Österreichische “Bundesministerium für Familien und Jugend” (The Austrian Federal Ministry for families and youth, オーストリア連邦家族・青年省)

And here is the current Austrian Minister for Family and Youth, Dr. Sophie Karmasin. 49 years old, with two children, Dr Sophie Karmasin has achieved a Doctorate in Psychology on “consumer behavior in the health market”, from 1993 to 2013, for 13 years she has pursued a very successful career in industry, most recently as Managing Director/CEO of a major market research company, before becoming party independent Minister of Family and Youth. She is not affiliated with any political party, but independent politician since 2013.

Expanding the solution space: wouldn’t it be better to have at least one woman on a committee promoting women’s empowerment?

Compare Family and Youth Minister Dr Sophie Karmasin with the all-male “woman act.” committee promoting women’s equality in Japan’s Kanagawa Prefecture, wouldn’t it be better to have at least one woman on a committee promoting women? But unless you are familiar on how this is done in other countries, your solution space is limited to what you know.

Why did today’s Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership happen? Because of Trinity College Cambridge

At a recent event of Trinity College Cambridge in Hong Kong, I met with Dame Carol Black, and our meeting led to today’s Forum.

Trinity College was founded By King Henry VIII in 1546 by combining the two older colleges King’s Hall and Michael House and seven Hostels. Sir Isaac Newton worked at Trinity College and about 32 Nobel Prize winners are or were members of Trinity College. Trinity College is part of the University of Cambridge

More about Trinity College Cambridge, for example on the website of our Trinity in Japan Society.

Why Ludwig Boltzmann Forum? Who is Ludwig Boltzmann?

Ludwig Boltzmann is one of the world’s most important physicists and we use his results and tools every day. Here are some examples of his work:

  • How we measure temperature (Kelvin, Celsius) is directly linked to Boltzmann’s constant k, especially after the new definitions of the SI International System of measurement units
  • S = k log W, linking macroscopic entropy to the microscopic statistics of molecules, and linking statistical mechanics with measuring information, and the arrow of time
  • the Stefan-Boltzmann radiation law
  • Boltzmann transport equations are used to design jet engines and aircraft and in semiconductor physics and many other areas
  • philosophy of nature
  • and much much more….

I am developing the Ludwig Boltzmann Forum a global leadership platform in honor of my great-grandfather.

Ludwig Boltzmann and women’s development and leadership

1872 Ludwig Boltzmann met Henriette von Aigentler (my great-grandmother), who was refused permission to unofficially audit lectures at Graz University, where Ludwig Boltzmann later became University President. Ludwig Boltzmann advised her to appeal, in 1874 Henriette passed the exam as high-school teacher, and on 17 July 1876, Ludwig Boltzmann and Henriette von Aigentler married.

One of Ludwig Boltzmann’s students is Lise Meitner (November 1878 – 27 October 1968). She was only the second woman to be awarded a PhD in Physics from the University of Vienna. Later she was part of the team that discovered nuclear fission, Otto Hahn was awarded the Nobel Prize for this work. Element No. 109, Meitnerium, is named after Lise Meitner.

Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership – outlook and next steps

  • Lets build the Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on women’s development and leadership together
    • Lets empower women leaders
    • Lets change mind sets
  • Lets build the Ludwig Boltzmann Forum into a global leadership platform based on science and logic
    • lets expand the solution space for important problems, and work towards implementing these solutions
Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership
Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership
Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership
Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership
Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership
Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership
Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership
Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership

Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership: Notes

Ludwig Boltzmann Forum on Women’s development and leadership summary written by Gerhard Fasol, view the full workshop program and summaries of all other keynotes here.

Copyright 2016 Eurotechnology Japan KK All Rights Reserved

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automotive industry disruption Leadership LED Lighting Ludwig Boltzmann Symposia science VC

Shuji Nakamura on 2nd and 3rd Generation Solid State Lighting

Shuji Nakamura’s invention to save energy corresponding to about 60 nuclear power stations by 2020

2nd and 3rd Generation Solid State Lighting

For Shuji Nakamura’s invention of high-efficiency GaN double-heterostructure LEDs he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics 2014, while his employer sued him in the USA for leaking intellectual property – Shuji Nakamura won this court case, and his employer lost the case. To defend himself and his family, Shuji Nakamura countersued in Japan, and the Japanese court awarded Shuji a substantial award in a settlement. Shuji shared some insights into the comparison of IP lawsuits in US vs Japan with us at the 8th Ludwig Boltzmann Forum.

Shuji moved to the University of California Santa Barbara, and is now building the company Soraa in Silicon Valley with investments from major US VC funds. Soraa may already be or is likely to be soon much bigger in value than Shuji’s previous Japanese employer. Soraa develops 2nd and 3rd Generation Solid State Lighting products.

Energy savings corresponding to 60 nuclear power stations by 2020

The global lighting revolution triggered by Shuji Nakamura’s inventions leads to energy savings corresponding to 60 nuclear power stations by 2020 – 60 nuclear power stations less will need to be built than without Shuji Nakamura’s inventions.

2nd Generation and 3rd Generation Solid State Lighting

With his venture company Soraa, Shuji is now working on 2nd Generation Solid State Lighting (GaN on GaN substrates) and 3rd Generation Solid State Lighting (laser lighting, which allows much higher light density), and which is already in use for car headlights.

Why squeeze Nobel Prize winner Shuji Nakamura into a top-down narrative?

Shuji Nakamura showed with a long list of newspaper clippings, TV show extracts, and Japanese Government agency announcements that he is being squeezed into a top-down innovation narrative, which is at odds with the findings of the Nobel Prize Committee of the Swedish Academy of Science.

Shuji Nakamura asks why he is being squeezed retrospectively into a top-down innovation narrative.

The truth is that most real innovation is bottom-up and disruptive, not government planned and top-down.

At the 8th Ludwig Boltzmann Forum we had intense discussions between Her Imperial Highness, Princess Takamado, Professor Makoto Suematsu, Nobel Prize Winner Shuji Nakamura, Professor Nomura, JST-President Michinari Hamaguchi, and several other Japanese technology and R&D leaders.

Read a summary of Shuji Nakamura’s talk here.

Copyright (c) 2016 Eurotechnology Japan KK All Rights Reserved

Categories
Leadership Ludwig Boltzmann Symposia R&D science

Makoto Suematsu: fast-tracking medical research in Japan

Makoto Suematsu, Founding President of Japan’s new Agency for Medical Research and Development AMED: The situation in Japan is so crazy, but now I will stay in Japan because I have a mission

summary of Professor Makoto Suematsu’s talk by Gerhard Fasol

Medical research in Japan: Fast-tracking medical research and development in Japan

In April 2015 Japan created the new “Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development, AMED” inspired by the US NIH (National Institutes of Health), “to promote integrated research and development in the field of medicine”.

Professor Makoto Suematsu was selected as the founding President of AMED, to build up this new Japanese national medical research agency.

Professor Makoto Suematsu is not only an outstanding medical professional and researcher, but he is also extremely outspoken about the many changes necessary to “fast-track” medical research in Japan, and particularly to overcome the fragmentation, “the Balkanization” of medical research in Japan, due to several different competing and overlapping supervising Government ministries and agencies in the past.

Professor Makoto Suematsu also explained the priorities he is setting to set out with relatively modest resources.

At the 8th Ludwig Boltzmann Forum we had intense discussions between Her Imperial Highness, Princess Takamado, Professor Makoto Suematsu, Nobel Prize Winner Shuji Nakamura, Professor Nomura, JST-President Michinari Hamaguchi, and several other Japanese technology and R&D leaders.

Read a summary of AMED-President Makoto Suematsu’s talk directly here.

8th Ludwig Boltzmann Forum, Tokyo 18 February 2016
8th Ludwig Boltzmann Forum, Tokyo 18 February 2016

Copyright 2016 Eurotechnology Japan KK All Rights Reserved

Categories
Leadership Ludwig Boltzmann Symposia R&D science technology University

Tokyo Institute of Technology President Yoshinao Mishima: “Become a world class University with more diversity by 2030”

Tokyo Institute of Technology President Yoshinao Mishima: Educational reforms at Tokyo Institute of Technology

(President of Tokyo Institute of Technology. Materials scientist specialized on nano-materials and high-performance materials)

Keynote presented at the 6th Ludwig Boltzmann Symposium on February 20, 2014 at the Embassy of Austria in Tokyo.

Tokyo Institute of Technology – short history

  • 1881: founded as The Tokyo Technical School
  • 1929: elevated to a degree-conferring university as Tokyo Kogyo Daigaku (Tokyo Institute of Technology)
  • 2004: reorganized as an independent administrative institution “National University Corporation Tokyo Institute of Technology”

Tokyo Institute of Technology – Statistics as of May 1, 2013

  • Undergraduate students: 4,790 (of which 180 are foreign students)
  • Graduate students: 3,611 Masters students + 1,512 Doctorate students = 5,123 (of which 943 (18.4%) are foreign students)
  • Research students: 90
  • Academic staff: 1,148
  • Administrative staff: 472

Tokyo Institute of Technology – The mission is to develop a new and vibrant society

  • produce graduates with a broad understanding of science and technology with both the ability and the determination to take on leading roles in society
  • create and support innovative science and technology that will lead to sustainable social development

Tokyo Institute of Technology – Detailed mission statements cover three areas

  • education: produce masters graduates who will thrive globally, and doctorate graduates who will come world’s top researchers are leaders
  • contributions to society and international activities
  • research: produce globally recognized results. Reform the research and support systems, in particular multi-step support for young researchers.

Tokyo Institute of Technology aims to become a world class university with greater diversity in faculty and students by 2030

Major educational reform plan (2013-…)

  1. Reborn masters and doctoral courses
  2. Reorganize departments, curriculum, courses
  3. Change from year-based study to credit based study
  4. Increase teaching in English, and numbers of foreign students
  5. Align with world top class universities for student transfers and credit transfers
  6. Enhance professional practice education for industry

A key challenge is that students primarily focus on earning credits to graduate, and lack a sense of mission to develop professional skills or to cooperate in our diverse global society. We need to change this type of behavior to create scientific leaders for the global arena.

We want to create a more flexible curriculum, that can be completed in a shorter time, so that students have more time for personal professional development and international exchange activities and communication skills.

Tokyo Institute of Technology: The Board of Directors decided on three pillars for education reform on September 6, 2013

  1. Build education system to become one of the world’s top universities
  2. Innovate learning
  3. Promote ambitious internationalization

We will move to a new and more flexible curriculum system, where undergraduate schools and graduate schools are blended.

Tokyo Institute of Technology: new initiatives

We are introducing a number of initiatives including active learning, a faculty mentor system where every faculty member mentors 5-10 students, increased numbers of lectures in English, invited top global researchers, provide facilities for foreign researchers, and broaden academic cooperation agreements and mutual accreditation of credits and degrees.

Professor Yoshinao Mishima, President of Tokyo Institute of Technology
Professor Yoshinao Mishima, President of Tokyo Institute of Technology

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Categories
Leadership Ludwig Boltzmann Symposia

JVC KENWOOD Chairman: “Speed is like fresh food” – Revitalization of Japanese industry by JVC KENWOOD Chairman Haruo Kawahara (6th Ludwig Boltzmann Symposium)

JVC Kenwood Chairman Haruo Kawahara: Revitalization of Japanese Industry

(Representative Director and Chairman of the Board of JVC KENWOOD Corporation)

Keynote presented at the 6th Ludwig Boltzmann Symposium on February 20, 2014 at the Embassy of Austria in Tokyo.

Background reading: Report on Japan’s electronics industry

JVC KENWOOD Corporation was incorporated on October 1, 2008, and has 20,033 employees as of October 1, 2013.

KENWOOD corporate vision: Creating excitement and peace of mind for the people of the world

KENWOOD overview

Total sales for fiscal year ending March 2013 was YEN 306.6 Billion (approx. US$ 3 Billion).

JVC KENWOOD today has four business divisions:

  • Car Electronics (CE): 33% of total sales
    • car navigation systems
    • car audio systems
    • CD/DVD drive mechanisms
    • optical pick-ups
  • Professional Systems (PS): 30%
    • digital land mobile radio
    • amateur radio
    • security cameras
    • professional video cameras
    • emergency broadcasting equipment
  • Optical & Audio (O&A): 22%
    • action camera
    • home audio systems
    • all-in one tower design audio systems
    • camcorder with wifi
    • 4K projektor
    • headphones
  • Entertainment Software (SE): 13%
    • Victor Entertainment Group
    • Teichiku Entertainment

Issues of the electrical industry of Japan:

  • 1970s: overwhelmed with vertical integration and self-sufficiency
  • 1980s: appreciation of the yen (1985 Plaza Accord)
  • 1990s: collapse of the Bubble (1991), relocation of production to Asia, three excesses:
    • debt
    • facility
    • employment
  • 2000s: lost 20 years

Going forward, Japan has the option of growth under new business models, or continue to stagnate with matured industries

While there is dramatic global market expansion in many business areas in the global electrical industry, e.g. for Lithium Ion Batteries, DVDs, Car navigation units, DRAM, Japan’s market shares are falling in most sectors. For example, Japanese market shares for LCD, DVD players, Lithium Ion batteries, or car navigation units have fallen from almost 100% global market share 5-10 years ago to 10%-20% today.

Restructuring mature industry can generate more economic benefit than innovating a new industry:

  • large established market, although low growth
  • reduced number of players in the market following consolidation

Revitalization of JVCKENWOOD

  • the current main business as the core – not new business
  • speed, like “fresh food”
  • eliminate hidden waste and loss costs
  • eliminate vested rights

Kenwood in 2002 was in a disastrous condition:

  • net income (loss): YEN -27 Billion (= US$ -270 million) losses
  • debt: YEN 110 Billion (= US$ 1.1 billion)
  • accumulated losses: YEN 45 Billion (= US$ 450 million)
  • net worth: YEN -17 Billion (= US$ -170 million)

Restructuring by March 2003:

  1. Financial restructuring: Dept/equity swap. Moved from YEN 17 billion negative net worth to positive within 6 months
  2. Business restructuring: focus on core business. Terminated cellular phone business.
  3. Cost restructuring: 30% cost reduction. Closed 3 factories. Voluntary retirement.
  4. Management restructuring: management consolidation. Eliminate huge wastes and losses in subsidiaries.

Restructuring in FY2003 achieved a V-shape recovery. Net income margin was improved from -8% in FY3/2002 to 2%-4% in recent years.

In mature markets, growth is achieved through M&A, reducing the number of players in the market. As the top player in the market, profitable growth improved:

Main four players in the car electronics after-market before Kenwood-JVC merger:

  1. Pioneer
  2. Kenwood
  3. Sony
  4. JVC

after the JVCKENWOOD merger, and restructure to minimize losses from the TV business:

  1. JVCKENWOOD

JVC and KENWOOD formed a capital and business alliance in July 2007, followed by management integration in October 2008, and a full merger in October 2011. The business portfolio was restructured, and in particular big losses in the TV business were reduced. Fixed costs were reduced by 40% by selling off assets, reduction of production and sales sites, and 25% voluntary retirement.

This structural reform was completed in the FY3/2001, and led to another V-shaped recovery, and to profitable growth under the new medium term business plan.

The JVC-KENWOOD merger led to big jumps in market share in many markets, and thus to very much improved profitability.

How can Japan become competitive again?

Why did Japan’s mass production type electronics fail? Answer: Japanese management failed to deal with globalization and digitalization.

Other factors that contributed to Japan’s failure are vertical integration, technology leakage from exporting production facilities, insufficient added value compared to the high Japanese labor costs, and lack of money for investment, because Japanese companies largely relied on bank loans instead of equity.

Japan’s heavy electrical industry on the other hand is competitive – why?

  1. Creative know-how in the heavy electrical industry is in human brains, therefore more difficult to leak to competitors under Japan’s employment circumstances.
  2. huge capital investment is needed, and almost fully depreciated in Japan. Therefore the depreciation costs exceeds HR costs.

How can Japan become competitive again?

Japan needs to accelerate growth strategies in those areas, where Japan has competitive advantage, and where Japanese industries can differentiate themselves. Examples are industrial areas which depend on a long-term improvements and advanced technologies, and techniques of craftsmen, and in next generation technologies.

JVC KENWOOD takes action to innovate

  • JVCKENWOOD invested in a venture capital fund: the WiL Fund I, LP to reinforce alliances with potential ventures in Japan and overseas
  • JVCKENWOOD invested in ZMP Inc. to promote car telematics and car auto-control

Haruo Kawahara, Chairman of JVCKenwood
Haruo Kawahara, Chairman of JVCKenwood

Haruo Kawahara, Chairman of JVCKenwood
Haruo Kawahara, Chairman of JVCKenwood

Copyright (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK All Rights Reserved

Categories
Disaster Leadership Ludwig Boltzmann Symposia

Groupthink can kill – Fukushima Accident Investigation Chairman Kiyoshi Kurokawa

Kiyoshi Kurokawa: Quo vadis Japan? – uncertain times

(Academic Fellow of GRIPS and former Chairman of Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission by National Diet of Japan)

Keynote presented at the 6th Ludwig Boltzmann Symposium on February 20, 2014 at the Embassy of Austria in Tokyo.

Professor Kurokawa set the stage by describing the uncertain times, risks and unpredictabilities in which we live – while at the same time internet connects us all, all while the world’s population increased from about 1 billion people in 1750 to about 9 billion people today.

Major global risks in terms of impact and likelihood are (General Annual Conference 2013 of the World Economic Forum):

  • severe income disparity
  • chronic fiscal imbalances
  • rising greenhouse gas emissions
  • cyber attacks
  • water supply crisis
  • management of population aging
  • corruption

Top trends for 2014, ranked by global significance (World Economic Forum, Outlook on global agenda 2014):

  • rising social tensions in Middle East and North Africa
  • widening income disparity
  • persistent structural unemployment
  • intensifying cyber threats
  • diminishing confidence in economic policies
  • lack of values in leadership
  • the expanding middle class in Asia

This changing world needs a change of paradigm:

  • resilience instead of strength
  • risk instead of safety

Many recent “Black Swan events” bring home that:

  • accident happens
  • machine breaks
  • to err is human

Fukushima Nuclear Accident Investigation Commission NAIIC of the Japanese Parliament:

Professor Kiyoshi Kurokawa chaired the Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission (NAIIC) by the National Diet of Japan, which was active from December 8, 2011 to July 5, 2012. While Parliamentary commissions to investigate accidents, problems and disasters are quite frequent in most Western democracies, this was the first time ever in the history of Constitutional Democratic Japan, that a Parliamentary investigation commission was constituted.

Examples of Parliamentary commissions in other western democracies are:

  • Three Mile Island, USA 1979
  • Space Shuttle Challenger, USA 1986
  • 9.11 Terrorist Attack, USA 2001 and many many many more in USA
  • Oslo’s shooting incident, Norway 2011
  • Mad Cow Disease, UK 1997-, and several Parliamentary commissions every year in UK

The records of the Parliamentary Commission for the Fukushima Disaster can be viewed here.

Fukushima Nuclear Accident Investigation Commission of the Japanese Parliament NAIIC key results: Fukushima nuclear disaster was caused by “regulatory capture”

The key result of the Parliamentary Commission is, that the Fukushima nuclear disaster was caused by “regulatory capture”, a phenomenon for which there are many examples all over the world and which is not specific to Japan. Regulatory capture was studied by Goerge J Stigler, who was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1982 for “for his seminal studies of industrial structures, functioning of markets and causes and effects of public regulation”.

Since the full report of the Independent Parliamentary Commission NAIIC is long and complex to read, few people are likely to read the full reports and watch the videos of all sessions.

Therefore short summary videos the key results of the Independent Parliamentary Commission NAIIC were prepared both in Japanese and in English.

The simplest explanation of The National Diet of Japan Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission NAIIC Report (English):

1. What is the NAIIC?

2. Was the nuclear accident preventable?

3. What happened inside the nuclear plant?

4. What should have been done after the accident?

5. Could the damage be contained?

6. What are the issues with nuclear energy?

わかりやすいプロジェクト 国会事故調編

1。国会事故調ってなに?

2。事故は防げなかったの?

3。原発の中でなにが起こっていたの?

4。事故の後対応をどうしたらよかったの?

5。被害を小さくとどめられなかったの?

6。原発をめぐる社会の仕組みの課題ってなに?

“Groupthink can kill”

We need leaders to be accountable, and we need to understand that “Groupthink” can lead to disasters.

We need the obligation to dissent instead of compliance.

The Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission (NAIIC) was like a hole body CT scan of the Governance of Japan.

Richard Feynman when charing the Space Shuttle Accident investigation wrote in 1986: “for a successful technology, reality must take precedence over public relations, for nature cannot be fooled.

For his work chairing the Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission (NAIIC) Professor Kurokawa was selected as one of “100 Top Global Thinkers 2012” by Foreign Policy “for daring to tell a complacent country that groupthink can kill”.

Professor Kurokawa was awarded the AAAS Scientific Freedom and Responsibility Award “for his courage in challenging some of the most ingrained conventions of Japanese governance and society.

“Japan is clearly living in denial, water keeps building up inside the plant, and debris keeps piling up outside of it. This is all just one big shell game aimed at pushing off the problem until the future”, New York Times, quotation of the day, September 4, 2013 Professor Kiyoshi Kurokawa

Professor Kiyoshi Kurokawa
Professor Kiyoshi Kurokawa

Professor Kiyoshi Kurokawa
Professor Kiyoshi Kurokawa

Copyright (c) 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK All Rights Reserved

Categories
Japan's energy sector Leadership Ludwig Boltzmann Symposia

Ludwig Boltzmann – Energy, Entropy, Leadership by Gerhard Fasol (6th Ludwig Boltzmann Symposium)

Ludwig Boltzmann as leader

(Gerhard Fasol, CEO of Eurotechnology Japan KK. Served as Associate Professor of Tokyo University, Lecturer at Cambridge University, and Manger of Hitachi Cambridge R&D Lab.)

Keynote presented at the 6th Ludwig Boltzmann Symposium on February 20, 2014 at the Embassy of Austria in Tokyo.

Ludwig Boltzmann, the scientist

Ludwig Boltzmann’s greatest contribution to science is that he linked the macroscopic definition of Entropy which came from optimizing steam engines at the source of the first industrial revolution to the microscopic motion of atoms or molecules in gases, this achievement is summarized by the equation S = k log W, linking entropy S with the probability W. k is the Boltzmann constant, one of the most important constants in nature, linked directly to temperature in the SI system of physical units. This monumental work is maybe Boltzmann’s most important creation but by far not the only one. He discovered many laws, and created many mathematical tools, for example Boltzmann’s Equations, which are used today as tools for numerical simulations of gas flow for the construction of jet engines, airplanes, automobiles, in semiconductor physics, information technology and many other areas. Although independently discovered, Shannon’s theory of noise in communication networks, and Shannon’s entropy in IT is also directly related to Boltzmann’s entropy work.

Ludwig Boltzmann, the leader

Ludwig Boltzmann was not only a monumental scientist, but also an exceptional leader, teacher, educator and promoter of exceptional talent, and he promoted many women.

One of the women Ludwig Boltzmann promoted was Henriette von Aigentler, who was refused permission to unofficially audit lectures at Graz University. Ludwig Boltzmann advised and helped her to appeal this decision, in 1874, Henriette von Aigentler passed her exams as a high-school teacher, and on July 17, 1876, Ludwig Boltzmann married Henriette von Aigentler, my great-grand mother.

Another woman Ludwig Boltzmann promoted was his student Lise Meitner (Nov 1878 – Oct 27, 1968), who later was part of the team that discovered nuclear fission, work for which Otto Hahn was awarded the Nobel Prize. Lise Meitner was also the second woman to earn a Doctorate degree in Physics from the University of Vienna. Element 109, Meitnerium, is named after Lise Meitner.

Nagaoka Hantaro, First President of the University of Osaka – Ludwig Boltzmann’s pupil

The first President of Osaka University (1931-1934), Nagaoka Hantaro (1865 – 1950) was Ludwig Boltzmann’s pupil around 1892 – 1893 at Muenchen University.

Ludwig Boltzmann, a leader of science

Ludwig Boltzmann was connected in intense discussions with all major scientists of his time, he travelled extensively including three trips to the USA in 1899, 1904 and 1905, about which he wrote the article “Die Reise eines deutschen Professors ins El Dorado”, published in the book “Populäre Schriften”.

Ludwig Boltzmann published his first scientific publication at the age of 21 years in 1865. He was appointed Full Professor of Mathematical Physics at the University of Graz in 1869 at the age of 25 years, later in 1887-1888 he was Rektor (President) of the University of Graz at the age of 43 years.

He spent periods of his professional work in Vienna, at Graz University (1869-1873 and 1876-1890), at Muenchen University (1890-1894). When working at Muenchen University, he discovered that neither he nor his family would not receive any pension from his employment at Muenchen University after an eventual retirement or in case he dies before retirement, and therefore decided to return to Vienna University in 1894, where he and his family were assured of an appropriate pension. During 1900-1902 he spent two years working in Leipzig, where he cooperated with the Nobel Prize winner Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald.

Ludwig Boltzmann did not shy away from forceful arguments to argue for his thoughts and conclusions, even if his conclusions were opposite to the views of established colleagues, or when he felt that philosophers intruded into the field of physics, i.e. used methods of philosophy to attempt solving questions which needed to be solved with physics measurements, e.g. to determine whether our space is curved or not. Later in his life he was therefore also appointed to a parallel Chair in Philosophy of Science, and Ludwig Boltzmann’s work in Philosophy of Science is also very fundamentally important.

I discovered the unpublished manuscripts of Boltzmann’s lectures on the Philosophy of Science, stimulated and encouraged by myself, and with painstaking work my mother transcribed these and other unpublished manuscripts, and prepared them for publication, to make these works finally accessible to the world, many years after Ludwig Boltzmann’s death.

Ludwig Boltzmann was a down to earth man. He rejected the offer of Nobility by His Majesty, The Emperor of Austria, i.e. the privilege to be named Ludwig von Boltzmann (or a higher title) instead of commoner Ludwig Boltzmann. Ludwig Boltzmann said: “if our common name was good enough for my parents and ancestors, it will be good enough for my children and grand children…”

Summary: understanding Ludwig Boltzmann.

Boltzmann’s thoughts and ideas are a big part of our understanding of the world and the universe.

His mathematical tools are used every day by today’s engineers, bankers, IT people, physicists, chemists… and even may contribute to solve the world’s energy problems.

Ludwig Boltzmann stood up for his ideas and conclusions and did not give in to authority. He rejected authority for authority’s sake, and strongly pushed his convictions forward.

What can we learn from Ludwig Boltzmann?

  • empower young people, recognize and support talent early.
  • exceptional talent is not linear but exponential.
  • move around the world. Connect. Interact.
  • empower women.
  • don’t accept authority for authority’s sake.
  • science/physics/nature need to be treated with the methods of physics/science.
  • no dogmas.
  • support entrepreneurs, Ludwig Boltzmann did.

Gerhard Fasol
Gerhard Fasol

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Categories
Ludwig Boltzmann Symposia R&D science technology

Boltzmann constant, temperature and the new SI system of units by Gerhard Fasol (6th Ludwig Boltzmann Symposium)

Boltzmann constant k, “What is temperature?” and the new definition of the SI system of physical units

(by Gerhard Fasol, CEO of Eurotechnology Japan KK. Served as Associate Professor of Tokyo University, Lecturer at Cambridge University, and Manger of Hitachi Cambridge R&D Lab.)

Keynote presented at the 6th Ludwig Boltzmann Symposium on February 20, 2014 at the Embassy of Austria in Tokyo.

(in preparing this talk, I am very grateful for several email discussions and telephone conversations, and for unpublished presentations and documents, to Dr Michael de Podesta MBE CPhys MInstP, Principal Research Scientist at the National Physical Laboratory NPL in Teddington, UK, who has greatly assisted me in understanding the current status of work on reforming the SI system of units, and also his very important work on high-precision measurements of Boltzmann’s constant. Dr Michael de Podesta’s measurements of Boltzmann’s constant are arguable among the most precise, of not the most precise measurements of Boltzmann’s constant today, and therefore a very important contribution to our system of physical units).

Boltzmann constant k, the definition of the unit of temperature and energy

Temperature is one of the physics quantities we use most, and understanding all aspects of temperature is at the core of Ludwig Boltzmann’s work. People measured temperature long before anyone knew what temperature really is: temperature is a measurement of the average kinetic energy of the atoms of a substance. When we touch a body to “feel” its temperature, what we are really doing is to measure the “buzz”, the thermal vibrations of the atoms making up that body.

For an ideal gas, the kinetic energy per molecule is equal to 3/2 k.T, where k is Boltzmann’s constant. Therefore Boltzmann’s constant directly links energy and Temperature.

However, when we measure “Temperature” in real life, we are not really measuring the true thermodynamic temperature, what we are really measuring is T90, a temperature scale ITS-90 defined in 1990, which is anchored by the definition of temperature units in the System International, the SI system of defining a set of fundamental physical units. Our base units are of fundamental importance for example to transfer semiconductor production processes around the world. For example, when a semiconductor production process requires a temperature of 769.3 Kelvin or mass of 1.0000 Kilogram, then accurate definition and methods of measurement are necessary to achieve precisely the same temperature or mass in different laboratories or factories around the world.

The SI system of physical units

The SI system consists of seven units, which at the moment are defined as follows:

  • second: The second is the duration of 9 192 631 770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium 133 atom.
  • metre: The meter is the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299 792 458 of a second.
  • kilogram: The kilogram is the unit of mass; it is equal to the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram.
  • Ampere: The ampere is that constant current which, if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular cross-section, and placed 1 meter apart in vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to 2 x 10-7 newton per meter of length.
  • Kelvin: The kelvin, unit of thermodynamic temperature, is the fraction 1/273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water.
  • mole:
    1. The mole is the amount of substance of a system which contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0.012 kilogram of carbon 12
    2. When the mole is used, the elementary entities must be specified and may be atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, other particles, or specified groups of such particles.
  • candela: The candela is the luminous intensity, in a given direction, of a source that emits monochromatic radiation of frequency 540 x 1012 hertz and that has a radiant intensity in that direction of 1/683 watt per steradian.

The definitions of base units has long history, and are evolving over time. Today several of the definitions are particularly problematic, among the most problematic are temperature and mass.

SI base units are closely linked to fundamental constants:

  • second:
  • metre: linked to c = speed of light in vacuum
  • kilogram: linked to h = Planck constant.
  • Ampere: linked to e = elementary charge (charge of an electron)
  • Kelvin: linked to k = Boltzmann constnt
  • mole: linked to N = Avogadro constant
  • candela:

Switch to a new framework for the SI base units:

Each fundamental constant Q is a product of a number {Q} and a base unit [Q]:

Q = {Q} x [Q],

for example Boltzmann’s constant is:
k = 1.380650 x 10-23 JK-1.

Thus we have two ways to define the SI system of SI base units:

  1. we can fix the units [Q], and then measure the numerical values {Q} of fundamental constants in terms of these units (method valid today to define the SI system)
  2. we can fix the numbers {Q} of fundamental constants, and then define the units [Q] thus that the fundamental constants have the numerical values {Q} (future method of defining the SI system)

Over the next few years the SI system of units will be switched from the today’s method (1.) where units are fixed and numerical values of fundamental constants are “variable”, i.e. determined experimentally, to the new method (2.) where the numerical values of the set of fundamental constants is fixed, and the units are defined such, that their definition results in the fixed numerical values of the set of fundamental constants. This switch to a new definition of the SI system requires international agreements, and decisions by international organizations, and this process is expected to be completed by 2018.

Today’s method (1.) above is problematic: The SI unit of temperature, Kelvin is defined as the fraction 1/273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature at the triple point of water. The problem is that the triple point depends on many factors including pressure, and the precise composition of water, in terms of isotopes and impurities. In the current definition the water to be used is determined as “VSNOW” = Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water. Of course this is highly problematic, and the new method (2.) will not depend on VSNOW any longer.

In the new system (2.) the Kelvin will be defined as:

Kelvin is defined such, that the numerical value of the Boltzmann constant k is equal to exactly 1.380650 x 10-23 JK-1.

Measurement of the Boltzmann constant k:

In order to link the soon to be fixed numerical value of Boltzmann’s constant to currently valid definitions of the Kelvin, and in particular to determine the precision and errors, it is necessary to measure the value of Boltzmann’s current in terms of today’s units as accurately as possible, and also to understand and estimate all errors in the measurement. Several measurements of Boltzmann’s constants are being performed in laboratories around the world, particularly at several European and US laboratories. Arguably today’s best measurement has been performed by Dr Michael de Podesta MBE CPhys MInstP, Principal Research Scientist at the National Physical Laboratory NPL in Teddington, UK, who has kindly discussed his measurements and today’s status of the work on the system of SI units and its redefinition with me, and has greatly assisted in the preparation of this article. Dr Podesta’s measurements of Boltzmann’s constant have been published in:
Michael de Podesta et al. “A low-uncertainty measurement of the Boltzmann constant”, Metrologia 50 (2013) 354-376.

Dr Podesta’s measurements are extremely sophisticated, needed many years of work, and cooperations with several other laboratories. Dr. Podesta and collaborators constructed a highly precise resonant cavity filled with Argon gas. Dr. Podesta measured both the microwave resonance modes of the cavity to determine the precise radius and geometry, and determined the speed of sound in the Argon gas from acoustic resonance modes. Dr Podesta performed exceptionally accurate measurements of the speed of sound in this cavity, which can be said to be the most accurate thermometer globally today. The speed of sound can be directly related to 3/2 k.T, the mean molecular kinetic energy of the Argon molecules. In these measurements, Dr. Podesta very carefully considered many different types of influences on his measurements, such as surface gas layers, shape of microwave and acoustic sources and sensors etc. He achieved a relative standard uncertainty of 0.71. 10-6, which means that his measurements of Boltzmann’s constant are estimated to be accurate to within better than on millionth. Dr. Podesta’s measurements directly influences the precision with which we measure temperature in the new system of units.

Over the last 10 years there is intense effort in Europe and the USA to build rebuild the SI unit system. In particular NIST (USA), NPL (UK), several French institutions and Italian institutions, as well as the German PTB (Physikalische Technische Bundesanstalt) are undertaking this effort. To my knowledge there is only very small or no contribution from Japan to this effort, which was surprising for me.

What is today’s best value for the Boltzmann constant k:

Today’s accepted best value of Boltzmann’s constant is the “2010 Codata value”:

k = 1.380 6488 . 10-23 JK-1, and the standard uncertainty is:
su = 0.000 0013 . 10-23 JK-1

Boltzmann constant talk by Gerhard Fasol
Gerhard Fasol
Boltzmann constant by Gerhard Fasol
Gerhard Fasol

Copyright 2014 Eurotechnology Japan KK All Rights Reserved

Categories
electronics component makers LED Ludwig Boltzmann Symposia nanotechnology R&D science technology telecommunications

VCSEL – Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers by their inventor, Kenichi Iga (6th Ludwig Boltzmann Symposium)

VCSEL inventor Kenichi Iga: hv vs kT – Optoelectronics and Energy

(Former President and Emeritus Professor of Tokyo Institute of Technology. Inventor of VCSEL (vertical cavity surface emitting lasers), widely used in photonics systems)

Keynote presented at the 6th Ludwig Boltzmann Symposium on February 20, 2014 at the Embassy of Austria in Tokyo.

VCSEL: how Kenichi Iga invented Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers

My invention of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) dates back to March 22, 1977. Today VCSEL devices are used in many applications all over the world. I was awarded the 2013 Franklin Institute Award, the Bower Award and Prize for Achievement in Science, “for the conception and development of the vertical cavity surface emitting laser and its multiple applications in optoelectronics“. Benjamin Franklin’s work is linked to mine: Benjamin Franklin in 1752 discovered that thunder originates from electricity – he linked electronics (electricity) with photons (light). After 1960 the era of lasers began, we learnt how to combine and control electrons and photons, and the era of optoelectronics.

If you read Japanese, you may be interested to read an interview with Genichi Hatakoshi and myself, intitled “The treasure micro box of optoelectronics” which was recently published in the Japanese journal OplusE Magazine by Adcom-Media.

Electrons and photons

Who are electrons? Electrons are just like a cloud expressed by Schroedinger’s equation, which Schroedinger postulated in 1926. Electrons can also be seen as randomly moving particles, described by the particle version of Schroedinger’s equation (1931).

Where does light come from? Light is generated by the accelerated motion of charged particles.

Electrons also show interference patterns. For example, if we combine the 1s and 2p orbitals around a nucleus, we observe interference.

In a semiconductor, electrons are characterized by a band structure, filled valence bands and largely empty conduction bands. The population of hole states in the valence bands and of electrons in the conduction bands are determined by the Fermi-Dirac distribution. In typical III-V semiconductors, generation and absorption of light is by transitions between 4s anti-bonding orbitals (the bottom of the conduction band) and 4p bonding orbitals (the top of the valence band).

In Japan, we are good at inventing new types of vertical structures:

  • in 607, the Horyuji 5-Jyu-no Toh (5 story tower) was built in Nara, and today we have progressed to building the 634 meter high Tokyo Sky Tree Tower.
  • in 1893, Kubota Co. Ltd. developed the vertical molding of water pipes
  • in 1977 Shunichi Iwawaki invented vertical magnetic memory
  • in 1977 Tatsuo Izawa developed VAD (vapor-phase axial deposition) of silica fibers
  • in 1977 Kenichi Iga invented vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL)

Communications and optical signal transmission

History of communications spans from 10,000 years BC with the invention of language, and 3000 BC with the invention of written characters and papyrus, to the invention of the internet in 1957, the realization of the laser in 1960, the realization of optical fiber communications in 1984, and now since 2008 we see Web 2.x and Cloud.

Optical telegraphy goes back to 200 BC, when optical beacons were used in China: digital signals using multi-color smoke. Around 600 AD we had optical beacons in China, Korea and Japan, and in 1200 BC also in Mongolia and India.
In the 18th and 19th century, optical semaphores were used in France.

In the 20th century, optical beam transmission using optical rods and optical fiber transmissions were developed, which combined with the development of lasers created today’s laser communications. Yasuharu Suematsu and his student showed the world’s first demonstration of optical fiber communications demonstration on May 26, 1963 at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, using a He-Ne laser, an electro-optic crystal for modulation of the laser light by the electrical signal from a microphone, and optical bundle fiber, and a photo-tube at the other end of the optical fiber bundle to revert the optical signals back into electrical signals and finally to drive a loud speaker. For his pioneering work, Yasuharu Suematsu was awarded the International Japan Prize in 2014.

VCSEL: I recorded my initial idea for the surface emitting laser on March 22, 1977 in my lab book.

Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSEL) have many advantages:

  1. ultra-low power consumption: small volume
  2. pure spectrum operation: short cavity
  3. continuous spectrum tuning: single resonance
  4. high speed modulation: wide response range
  5. easy coupling to optical fibers: circular mode
  6. monolithic fabrication like LSI
  7. wafer level probe testing
  8. 2-dimensional array
  9. vertical stack integration with micro-machine
  10. physically small

VCSEL have found applications in many fields, including: data communications, sensing, printing, interconnects, displays.

As an example, the Tsubame-2 supercomputer, which in November 2011 was 5th of top-500 supercomputers, and on June 2, 2011 was greenest computer of Green500, uses 3500 optical fiber interconnects with a length of 100km. In 2012: Too500/Green500/Graph500

IBM Sequoia uses 330,000 VCSELs.

Fuji Xerox introduced the first demonstration of 2 dimensional 4×8 VCSEL printer array for high speed and ultra-fine resolution laser printing: 14 pages/minute and 2400 dots/inch.

VCSEL: Some recent news:

The laser market is estimated to be US$ 11 billion by 2017.
VCSELs move to optical interconnects.
By 2019 the optical interconnect market is estimated to reach US$ 5.2 billion.

VCSEL: In summary

VCSEL photonics started from minor reputation and generated big innovation. VCSELs feature:

  • low power consumption: good for green ICE
  • high speed modulation beyond 20 GBits/second
  • 2D array
  • good productivity due to monolithic process

Future: will generate ideas never thought before.

VCSEL em. President of Tokyo Institute of Technology, Professor Kenichi Iga, inventor of VCSEL
em. President of Tokyo Institute of Technology, Professor Kenichi Iga, inventor of VCSEL
VCSEL Gerhard Fasol (left), em. President of Tokyo Institute of Technology, Professor Kenichi Iga (right)
Gerhard Fasol (left), em. President of Tokyo Institute of Technology, Professor Kenichi Iga (right)

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Ludwig Boltzmann Symposia

Energy – 5th Ludwig Boltzmann Symposium, Tokyo, Feb 20, 2013

Energy

5th Ludwig Boltzmann Symposium – speakers: Robert Geller, Gerhard Fasol, Kiyoshi Kurokawa, Shuji Nakamura

Wednesday, 20th February 2013, Embassy of Austria, Tokyo

  • 14:00 Welcome by Dr. Bernhard Zimburg, Ambassador of Austria to Japan
  • 14:10 Gerhard Fasol, "today’s agenda"
  • 14:20 – 14:40 Robert Geller
    Professor of Geophysics University of Tokyo, seismologist. First ever tenured non-Japanese faculty member at the University of Tokyo
    "A seismologist looks at nuclear power plant safety issues"
  • 14:40 – 15:20 Gerhard Fasol
    Physicist. CEO of Eurotechnology Japan KK, served as Assoc Professor at Tokyo University and Lecturer at Cambridge University and Manager of Hitachi Cambridge R&D lab
    "Ludwig Boltzmann – the disrespectful revolutionary"
  • 15:40 – 16:20 Kiyoshi Kurokawa
    Academic Fellow of GRIPS and former Chairman of Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission by National Diet of Japan
    "Creativity, Crazy Ones and Power of Pull"
  • 16:40 – 17:20 Shuji Nakamura
    Professor, University of California, Santa Barbara. Inventor of GaN LEDs and lasers, which are the basis for the global LED lighting revolution.
    "The global lighting revolution and the changes I want for Japan"
  • 17:20 – 17:30 Gerhard Fasol "Summary"
  • Followed by reception (private, invitation only)

Registration: latest 10 February 2013 (by invitation only)

Further information:

Peter Storer, Minister for Cultural Affairs, Embassy of Austria

Summary

Robert Geller: "A seismologist looks at nuclear power plant safety issues"

Robert Geller gave an overview of large scale earthquakes and tsunamis in different regions of earth, and in history, and explained that large "Tohoku-2011" scale earth quakes and tsunamis do have a finite probability of striking Japan, and need to be taken in to account in the construction of structures such as nuclear power plants. Robert Geller in particular explained and emphasized the risks on the northern coast of Japan, facing the Sea of Japan.

Gerhard Fasol: "Ludwig Boltzmann – the disrespectful revolutionary"

Gerhard Fasol reviewed Ludwig Boltzmann’s life and work, and particular Boltzmann’s efforts to promote open discussion and to destroy dogmatic views, most importantly the rejection of atoms by Oswald’s school of "energetics" and Mach. Ludwig Boltzmann’s work is fundamental in many areas of today’s physics, technology, IT, energy and in many other fields. As a demonstration of Ludwig Boltzmann’s work linking the macrosopic face of Entropy with the statistical properties of atoms and molecules, Gerhard Fasol explained today’s state of development of electrical power production from the entry of mixing of water with different concentrations of salts, from salinity gradients. "Osmotic powerplants", which are directly based on Boltzmann’s work on the Entropy of mixing, have the potential to be developed into a very important contribution to our future renewable energy mix, although much research still remains to be done, especially in the area of semipermeable membranes.

Kiyoshi Kurokawa: "Creativity, Crazy Ones and Power of Pull – Uncertain Times: Changing Principles"

Kiyoshi Kurokawa laid out the rapid and dramatic changes we are currently facing in our world: the development of the global information revolution, revolutions towards democracy in the arab world, the Sept-11 terror attacks, and the triple disaster in Tohoku in March 2011. As short summary of the information revolution, linked with other major developments of global impact:

web 1.0: 1991-2000 – end of cold war, world wide web, globalization and financial crises: 1990, 1992, 1997

web 2.0: 2001-2010 – 9.11, digital age, wireless, touch panel, growth of emerging economies, BRICs, global financial crisis 2007, and President Barak Obama

web 3.0: 2011- – Arab Spring, and March-11 Tohoku disaster

Paradigm shift of The Principles (Joi Ito, MIT Media Lab, and Kiyoshi Kurokawa, GRIPS):

The principles 1:
RESILIENCE instead of strength
RISK instead of safety
SYTEMS instead of objects

The principles 2:
COMPASSES instead of maps
PULL instead of push
PRACTICE instead of theory

The principles 3:
DISOBEDIENCE instead of compliance
CROWDS instead of experts
LEARNING instead of education

For his work as former Chairman of Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission by National Diet of Japan, Kiyoshi Kurokawa was recently awarded the "Scientific Freedom and Responsibility Award" by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Kiyoshi Kurokawa paid particular attention for the deliberations and fact finding by the Independent Investigation Commission was open and transparent, and published globally in Japanese and in English in many different forms. The report itself can be downloaded here: http://warp.da.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/3856371/naiic.go.jp/index.html

Kiyoshi Kurokawa emphasised the contribution of "Regulatory Capture" to the Fukushima nuclear disaster. Important work on "Regulatory Capture" was done by US economist George Stigler, who was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1982. Kiyoshi Kurokawa emphasized that Regulatory Capture is not specific to Japan, there are many examples throughout the world.

Shuji Nakamura: "The global lighting revolution and the changes I want for Japan"

Shuji Nakamura briefly outlined his inventions of a long series of GaN based devices, GaN LEDs and lasers, which are the basis for the global lighting revolution, and for bluray storage technology. Shuji Nakamura gave us a passionate personal view of his work as a researcher, how he created and experienced the breakthroughs, and some consequences on his personal life. Shuji Nakamura explained how he was accused in a US court by his former employer, and how as a consequence in order to defend himself and his family, he saw himself forced to countersue his former employer in Japanese courts. Shuji Nakamura compared his situation as a researcher in Japan, and now in Santa Barbara, and made some suggestions for change for the position of researchers.

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Japan's energy sector Ludwig Boltzmann Symposia

4th Ludwig Boltzmann Symposium Tokyo (Feb 20, 2012, Embassy of Austria)

Energy

4th Ludwig Boltzmann Symposium on Energy in Tokyo. Speakers: Tatsuo Masuda, Kiyoshi Kurokawa, Hideaki Watanabe, Robert Geller, Gerhard Fasol, Jonathan Dorfan

  • on Monday, 20th February 2012
  • 14:00 Welcome by Thomas Loidl, Chargé d’affaires ad interim of the Austrian Embassy
  • 14:10 Gerhard Fasol: today’s agenda”
  • 14:20 – 14:40 Tatsuo Masuda
    Professor at Nagoya University of Commerce and Business, served as Director of Oil Markets and Emergency Preparedness of IEA
    “New energy architecture for Japan”
  • 14:40 – 15:20 Kiyoshi Kurokawa (schedule permitting)
    Chairman of Japan’s Parliamentary Commission on the Fukushima Disaster, served as Special Cabinet Advisor on Science, Technology and Innovation
    “Fukushima crisis fueling the third opening of Japan”
  • 15:50 – 16:10 Hideaki Watanabe
    Corporate Vice-President, Nissan Motor Company, in charge of Electric Vehicles and Zero Emission Business
    “The new energy management supported by Electric Vehicles”
  • 16:10 – 16:30 Robert Geller
    Professor of Geophysics University of Tokyo, seismologist. First ever tenured non-Japanese faculty member at the University of Tokyo
    “Understanding earthquakes: let’s put the physics back into geophysics!”
  • 16:50 – 17:30 Gerhard Fasol
    Physicist. CEO of Eurotechnology Japan KK, served as Assoc Professor at Tokyo University and Lecturer at Cambridge University and Manager of Hitachi Cambridge R&D lab
    “Ludwig Boltzmann and the laws governing energy”
  • 17:30 – 17:50 Jonathan M Dorfan
    Particle physicist
    President, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, OIST. Served as Director of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center
    “New Solutions for Energy – OIST’s R&am;D Program”
  • Followed by reception (private, invitation only)

Registration: latest 15 February 2011
Further information:

Peter Storer, Minister for Cultural Affairs, Embassy of Austria

Summary

Tatsuo Masuda: “New energy architecture for Japan”

Tatsuo Masuda described how Japan’s energy strategy and policy was until recently determined more or less behind closed doors by a group of about 100 insiders, of which Tatsuo Masuda has been one. This situation could continue as long as nothing went wrong.

Atomic energy was introduced to Japan via the USA, and instead of growing nuclear technology over an extended period of time within Japan, policians decided on a very short time schedule, which made it impossible to develop nuclear technology within Japan, and left purchase of ready-made nuclear power-plants and adoption of nuclear power technology from the USA as the only option.

Tatsuo Masuda predicts the “democratization” of electrical power generation in Japan. While at present almost all electrical power in Japan is produced by regional monopoly companies, in the future a development is likely, where many organizations, corporations, and private citizens will take part, or even may take over the main task or producing electrical energy in Japan.

Hideaki Watanabe: “The new energy management supported by Electric Vehicles”

Hideki Watanabe explained Nissan’s Leaf electrical vehicle program, and the associated energy technologies and businesses. During the coffee break, participants studied a Lead car, and an animated discussion took place about advantages and disadvantages of electrical cars, and in particular the Lead with respect to cold weather performance and other extreme conditions

Mr Watanabe explained that the Leaf electric car is the center of an energy management system, where the battery of Leaf electric car is an integral part of the energy management of the owner’s household.

Robert Geller: “Understanding earthquakes: let’s put the physics back into geophysics!”

Robert Geller calls for an return to the principles of physics in understanding earth quakes and in preparing for future disasters, instead of following positions based on political or funding priorities.

Robert Geller for a long time has been arguing for the view, that the timing, location and strength of earthquakes cannot be predicted due to fundamental principles of physics, and the nature of the earth. Robert demonstrated his arguments by bending a pencil in front of us (see photos below). While the stress distribution and other details can be calculated with precision, it is not possible to predict the time and the way the pencil breaks with accuracy. Robert argues that in a similar way, earth quakes can also not be predicted, because earth quakes are essentially in the mathematical sense chaotic phenomena.

Robert explained how a group of earth scientists years ago promised that they could predict earth quakes with the purpose of obtaining politically motivated funding for their research. They were successful in obtaining continuous research funding with the explicit purpose of developing methods to predict earthquakes. Once this funding started flowing for many years now, it is very difficult for scientists obtaining this funding to put the possibility of earthquake prediction in question.

Robert also discussed official earth quake risk maps, and explained that many of the strongest earth quakes occur in areas which are officially designated as low risk areas.

Robert called for a reassessment of earth quake policies and preparations for future disasters, using the most up-to-date results of earth-science, and to review outdated positions, and abandon those positions, which have been shown to be invalid using established methods of physics.

Gerhard Fasol: “Ludwig Boltzmann and the laws governing energy”

Gerhard Fasol reviewed Ludwig Boltzmann’s life and work, and particular his life-long work on the fundamental laws of physics governing energy.

Jonathan M Dorfan: “New Solutions for Energy – OIST’s R&D Program”

Jonathan Dorfan introduced OIST, The Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, which has just recently been accredited as a Graduate University by the Japanese Ministry of Education, and introduced several research programs in the field of energy generation.

Jonathan explained the history of OIST, and OIST’s pioneering position as an English speaking international Graduate University in Japan. In particular, OIST has no Departments which would create barriers between research groups, instead the emphasis is on cross-disciplinary cooperation supported by the latest instrumentats and research tools. According to Jonathan, OIST succeeds in attracting most outstanding staff and students – surprisingly current market conditions seem to make it easier to attract outstanding research staff than students – the market for attracting outstanding students seems to be more competitive than for research staff. OIST offers scholarships for students, many or all of which are graduates from top ranking undergraduate schools.

Photos

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Ludwig Boltzmann Symposia science

our future: hot, flat, and crowded… celebrating Ludwig Boltzmann’s 165th birthday

First Ludwig Boltzmann Forum Tokyo on February 20th, 2009

Speakers: Hisashi Kobayashi, Gerhard Fasol, Kazu Ishikawa, Kiyoshi Kurokawa

Ludwig Boltzmann was one of the most important physicists and philosophers: it is almost impossible for any engineer, chemist or physicist to do a day’s work without using Boltzmann’s tools and results every day. Ludwig Boltzmann is Gerhard Fasol‘s and Eurotechnology Japan KK’s founder’s great grandfather – and his excellence is our company’s guiding light.

Ludwig Boltzmann was born 165 years ago on February 20, 1844, and last Friday, February 20, 2009 we celebrated the first event of the Ludwig Boltzmann Forum by inviting several of Japan’s science and technology leaders with kind cooperation and hospitality by the Ambassador of Austria and the Austrian Embassy:

First speaker was Professor Hisashi Kobayashi, Founder of the IBM Tokyo Laboratory, former Dean of Engineering of Princeton University. He showed how Entropy and noise in communications is linked to Boltzmann’s generalized Entropy and the H-Theorem. Coming from Princeton, Hisashi also showed us elegantly how strongly Einstein’s work is linked to Boltzmann’s.

Professor Kiyoshi Kurokawa, former Dean of Medicine of Tokai University, former President of Japan’s Science Council and Advisor to two Japanese Prime Ministers and now Professor at Japan’s new Political Science University, gave an intense and passionate speech about which changes are necessary to live in our future which will be hot (as in global warming), flat (as in global communications and internet) and crowded (due do population growth). Kiyoshi also made a passionate appeal to Japanese organisations (including the S&T leaders participating at our Symposium) to change, open up and compete globally.

Kazu Ishikawa of Exa Japan gave a fantastic demonstration how Boltzmann’s equations are used to simulate airflow for the construction of cars, airplanes, jet engines … Boltzmann’s equations replace the macroscopic Navier-Stokes equations as numerical wind tunnels. Boltzmann’s equations are particularly needed for the simulation of transients.

Finally, Gerhard Fasol, Ludwig Boltzmann’s Great-Grandson, gave two talks: one talk about Ludwig Boltzmann’s scientific achievements, his search for understanding the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics with mechanics, the effects of collisions and the generalization to non-equilibrium – leading the H-Theorem, and the generalization of Entropy and Boltzmann’s philosophical work. The second talk introduced the human side of Ludwig Boltzmann: his life and his passions.

Photo: Hisashi Kobayashi shows why Boltzmann’s work is important for telecommunications, and how Einstein’s work is linked to Boltzmann’s. Her Excellency, the Austrian Ambassador follows closely:

Hisashi Kobayashi at the Ludwig Boltzmann Symposium - the Ambassador of Austria listens
Hisashi Kobayashi at the Ludwig Boltzmann Symposium – the Ambassador of Austria listens

Photo: Hot, flat and crowded. In a passionate speech, former science and tech advisor of two Japanese Prime-Ministers, Kiyoshi Kurokawa talks about the future, and how to be prepared to compete:

Kiyoshi Kurokawa
Kiyoshi Kurokawa: Hot, flat and crowded

Photo: The Austrian Ambassador invited the participants of the Ludwig Boltzmann Symposium to the Austrian Residence:

Reception by the Ambassador of Austria
Reception by the Ambassador of Austria

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Ludwig Boltzmann Symposia

Ludwig Boltzmann 100 years

On 5 September 1906 Ludwig Boltzmann died in Duano, Italy

Ludwig Boltzmann: 20 February 1844 – 5 September 1906

Ludwig Boltzmann (20 February 1844 – 5 September 1906) is our company’s founder’s great grandfather – and one of our company’s great inspiration. We are working hard to continue his tradition of innovation and excellence and diligent work.

Ludwig Boltzmann died exactly 100 years ago today, on September 5, 1906.

On the 170th Anniversary day of Ludwig Boltzmann’s birth, on February 20, 2014, a ceremony was held at the “Ples” Building (Duino no. 76), the building in which Boltzmann passed away on September 5, 1906, to unveil a commemorative plate. See details of the ceremony here.

Ludwig Boltzmann worked in many different areas and found the first explanations for many phenomena. He did not just create one single invention, but he created very many.

Boltzmann is best known for his work in gas theory: using complex mathematical tools, many of which he had developed himself, Boltbmann linked the macroscopic “Entropy” of gases with the microscopic forces between atoms and molecules in gases. “Entropy” was initially just a useful macroscopic concept similar to temperature and pressure of a gas developed during the early days of industrialization in England to optimize steam engines. Boltzmann showed that Entropy is a much much deeper fundamental concept, and showed how Entropy is related to the collissions between atoms and molecules in a gas and that Entropy expresses the probability that a body is found in a certain state.

In Boltzmann’s days, it was not generally accepted that atoms and molecules exist. Actually, in Vienna in those days, in order to survive socially, Boltzmann had to use very careful words: he usually did not say directly that he is convinced that atoms and molecules exist: he said that they are just a useful concept, whether they exist or not.

Ludwig Boltzmann was the last great classical physicist. He knew of several unexplained puzzles: Brown’s motion, the discrete spectra of atoms, curvature of space, but he could not explain them with the classical methods he mastered. Today Boltzmann’s methods, the Boltzmann constant, the Boltzmann Equation and much of his work is used every day in telecoms, information technology, electronics, chemical industry and many other areas.

Read more about Ludwig Boltzmann…

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